Modafinil is a non-amphetamine central nervous system (CNS) stimulant with wakefulness-promoting properties. It is used in the treatment of conditions that cause excessive daytime sleepiness. Buy Modafinil modalert online in Australia
- Narcolepsy: First-line treatment; Modafinil is used to treat the daytime fatigue associated with narcolepsy, and it has not been shown to improve symptoms of cataplexy.
- Sleep Work Shift Disorder: First-line treatment
- Obstructive sleep apnea: Adjunct to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)
- Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Some evidence of efficacy exists in the pediatric population. A recent study of adult ADHD patients found no benefit of modafinil.
- Acute unipolar and bipolar depressive episodes
- Cocaine dependence: Evidence regarding the efficacy of modafinil for this purpose appears mixed
- Cancer-related fatigue: Evidence regarding the efficacy of modafinil for this use appears mixed
- Multiple sclerosis-related fatigues Buy Modafinil modalert online in Australia
Mechanism of Action
Modafinil is known to be a weak inhibitor of dopamine reuptake, which may be its primary clinically important property. It has little to no in vivo affinity for the serotonin (5HT) or norepinephrine (NE) transporters. However, elevated concentrations of NE and 5HT in the prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus have been observed following modafinil administration, possibly as an indirect effect of increased extracellular dopamine. Modafinil exists as a racemic mixture of S- and R-enantiomers. The R-enantiomer is thought to be the source of modafinil’s psychotropic properties and is marketed independently as armodafinil. Buy Modafinil modalert online in Australia
Additionally, modafinil has been postulated to increase signaling in the hypothalamic orexin and histamine neurotransmitter pathways, and animal studies have also suggested a glutamatergic effect. A potential advantage of modafinil is its very low observed propensity for causing euphoric effects associated with traditional psychostimulants (e.g., cocaine, amphetamine). This has been attributed to differences in its interaction with the dopamine transporter at the molecular level. In several laboratory studies of healthy subjects, modafinil has also been shown to reduce the euphoric effects of cocaine. Buy Modafinil modalert online in Australia
Modafinil is available exclusively in the form of oral tablets; the usual dose is 200mg once daily. It is insoluble in an aqueous solution and therefore cannot be administered intravenously. Maximum plasma concentration is reached 2-4 hours after administration. Modafinil undergoes hepatic metabolism via multiple pathways, including CYP3A4. 80% of the dose is recovered in the urine in the form of metabolites. The elimination half-life of a single dose in healthy subjects is approximately 15 hours. Severe renal and/or hepatic impairment is known to cause significantly increased steady-state drug concentrations. Dose reduction is recommended in patients with severe hepatic impairment. Buy Modafinil modalert online in Australia
Modafinil is generally a well-tolerated stimulant. The most commonly reported adverse effects of modafinil (less than 10% of users) are a headache, nausea, and decreased appetite. Other commonly reported adverse effects (5% to 10% of users) include anxiety, insomnia, dizziness, diarrhea, and rhinitis.
Regarding serious adverse effects, cases of stevens-johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) have been reported in postmarketing surveillance. These life-threatening rashes associated with modafinil appear extremely rare, although the precise incidence rates are not known. Most of the reported cases have occurred within six weeks of drug initiation. Therefore, any patient who develops a rash during this time frame is advised to notify the prescribing physician immediately. Buy Modafinil modalert online in Australia