Alprazolam is a triazolobenzodiazepine with antianxiety and sedative-hypnotic actions. It is used to treat Panic Disorder and Anxiety Disorders. Alprazolam acts by binding to the [Chemical:PA10402] site on the GABA A receptor to enhance the affinity of channel opening by the agonist gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), which leads to central nervous system depression [Articles:11689393, 751612, 18384456, 15926867]. Buy Dava Alprazolam Xanax 2mg online in Australia
Alprazolam is well absorbed after oral administration. It is metabolized to 4-hydroxyalprazolam via CYP3A4 and to alpha-hydroxyalprazolam via CYP3A5 [Article:18855614]. Drugs that are inducers or inhibitors of CYP3A activity may affect the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodymic properties of alprazolam. Detailed alprazolam metabolism is depicted in the Benzodiazepine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP3A5 have been found to impact disposition of alprazolam [Article:1676514]; however, this finding has been debated [Article:17178274]. Buy Dava Alprazolam Xanax 2mg online in Australia
Similar to other [Chemical:PA10402], the primary target of alprazolam is the GABA A receptor, a pentameric protein which forms a chloride selective ion channel, activated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) [Articles:11689393, 751612, 18384456]. At least 16 different GABA A receptor subunits have been identified, classified into seven subunit families: alpha, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon, theta, and pi subunits [Article:18651727]. The most common GABA A :BDZ receptor in the brain is thought to be composed of two subunits of alpha1, two subunits of beta2 and one subunit of gamma2 [Articles:11689393, 12171574, 9426470, 15301992], coded for by GABRA1, GABRB2 and GABRG2 respectively. Alprazolam binds to the cleft between subunits alpha1 and gamma2 on the GABA A receptor to induce a conformational change in the receptor [Articles:12171574, 9426470]. This binding pocket is separate from that of the GABA agonist site, which itself is thought to be between the alpha1 and beta2 subunits [Article:9426470]. The general notion of the action of BZDs is that they promote the binding of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA to the GABA A receptors and enhance the affinity of channel opening by GABA. They do not activate GABA A receptors directly but, instead, are positive allosteric modulators of the effects of GABA [Article:12171574] and allow lower concentrations of this neurotransmitter to open the Cl- channels [Article:12171574]. Buy Dava Alprazolam Xanax 2mg online in Australia
Besides the GABA A receptor, BDZs also bind to the Peripheral Benzodiazepine Receptor (PBR); this receptor consists of several subunits, including the isoquinoline binding protein (TSPO, also referred to as a translocator protein), a voltage-dependent anion channel VDAC (VDAC1), an adenine nucleotide transporter ANT (SLC25A4), a PBR-associated protein 1 PRAX-1 (BZRAP1), and another PBR-associated protein PAP7 (ACBD3) [Articles:17692008, 9504140, 12173979, 19133775, 16822554, 16337685]. Buy Dava Alprazolam Xanax 2mg online in Australia
gene TSPO [Articles:17692008, 19133775, 16822554, 16337685]. This receptor is expressed in abundance in many peripheral organs and tissues as well as in the central nervous system (in the latter case, in glia cells [Articles:9504140, 12173979]). Studies have shown that the Peripheral Benzodiazepine Receptor may play an important role in the human immune system and may take part in the pathophysiological processes of several nervous system disorders [Articles:9504140, 12173979]. Buy Dava Alprazolam Xanax 2mg online in Australia
The detailed mechanism of action of alprazolam and other BDZs is depicted in the Benzodiazepine Pathway, Pharmacodynamics.