Diazepam (Valium) is among the most successful drugs from the onset of the psychopharmacological revolution that began during the 1950s. Efficacious in treating a wide-spectrum of CNS disorders, including anxiety and epilepsy, it set the standard for pharmacotherapy in terms of potency, onset of action, and safety. In this Review, the legacy of diazepam to chemical neuroscience will be considered along with its synthesis, pharmacology, drug metabolism, adverse events and dependence, clinical use, and regulatory issues. Buy Valium Diazepam 10mg for sleep online in Australia
Anxiety disorders have been the most prevalent of all psychiatric ailments. Along with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), over 40 million people in the United States live with panic disorder, agoraphobia, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), or other forms of anxiety disorders. (1) While estimates for global prevalence vary, anxiety disorders and lack of treatment are common problems in both developed and developing countries. Buy Valium Diazepam 10mg for sleep online in Australia
Historically, the first pharmacological treatments for anxiety consisted of using general depressants and sedatives such as alcohol, opiates, lithium bromide, and chloral hydrate. These were largely supplanted by carbamates (meprobamate 3) and barbiturates (phenobarbital 4) by the mid-20th century (Figure (Figure1).1). However, it was not until 1960 when the pharmacotherapy for anxiety disorders became available with a greatly improved safety profile, in contrast to the narrow therapeutic range of sedatives and hypnotics. Buy Valium Diazepam 10mg for sleep online in Australia
Beginning with chlordiazepoxide 2 (Librium), benzodiazepines proved to be a promising new class of potent anxiolytics without fatal adverse events. In 1963 an even more potent benzodiazepine, diazepam 1 (Valium), was released to the public, possessing “a greater dissociation between its sedative and anxiolytic properties.”2 Not only prescribed for anxiety, diazepam had therapeutic benefits for epilepsy, muscle spasms, and alcohol withdrawal.3 Diazepam quickly became one of the top selling drugs of all time, despite 15 years without significant knowledge of its mechanism of action. Buy Valium Diazepam 10mg for sleep online in Australia
Buy Valium Diazepam 10mg for sleep online in Australia. Diazepam and other drugs in the benzodiazepine class are positive allosteric modulators (no functional response alone, but increase the response of the endogenous ligand) of the GABAA (γ-aminobutyric acid type A) receptor complex, binding to a unique site on the alpha-gamma subunit interface. Diazepam interaction with these sites increases neuronal chloride-ion influx upon GABA binding, resulting in hyperpolarized postsynaptic membranes, thus enhancing CNS depression response to endogenous GABA.4 These GABA potentiating actions are observed in the limbic system, thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex and have calming effects on neuronal processes in these areas, resulting in anxiolytic and antiepileptic effects.5 Along with its targeted mechanism, diazepam’s potency, high bioavailability, and fast onset of action all account for its clinical efficacy and commercial success. Buy Valium Diazepam 10mg for sleep online in Australia
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